Arizona

 
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A statute of limitations (or SOL), simply, is the maximum amount of time one has to bring a lawsuit from the time of the injury or other ground for a lawsuit.

SOLs vary from state to state and from claim to claim. For example, a SOL for a lawsuit about a contract may be different from a lawsuit about a personal injury and both may be of varying durations between different states. The statute of limitations may also be set to begin running at different times. Some SOLs begin running at the time of the injury and others begin running when the injury is discovered.

Child Sex Abuse Statutes of Limitation and Related Laws

Current Civil SOL

In Arizona, the civil SOL for child sex abuse is capped at age 20 (age of majority, 18, plus 2 years). There is also a discovery rule, which allows victims up to 2 years to file a claim after discovering an injury caused by the abuse.


SOL vs. perp: +2 years from majority = Age 20
SOL vs. employer: +2 years from majority = Age 20
Majority Tolling: Age 18
Discovery Tolling: Narrow


Arizona State Law Provides:

Injury to person; injury when death ensues; injury to property; conversion of property; forcible entry and forcible detainer; two year limitation

Except as provided in § 12-551 there shall be commenced and prosecuted within two years after the cause of action accrues, and not afterward, the following actions:

  1. For injuries done to the person of another including causes of action for medical malpractice as defined in § 12-561.
  2. For injuries done to the person of another when death ensues from such injuries, which action shall be considered as accruing at the death of the party injured.
  3. For trespass for injury done to the estate or the property of another.
  4. For taking or carrying away the goods and chattels of another.
  5. For detaining the personal property of another and for converting such property to one's own use.
  6. For forcible entry or forcible detainer, which action shall be considered as accruing at the commencement of the forcible entry or detainer.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 12-542

Arizona also has a very short civil SOL. Civil claims are capped at age 20, which was established in 1996. However, in certain circumstances, Arizona has adopted a discovery rule. The discovery rule may provide for a different accrual date—when the plaintiff knew or should have known by reasonable diligence that the alleged injury occurred.

See, e.g., Doe v. Roe, 191 Ariz. 313 (1998) (“[A]” cause of action does not accrue until the plaintiff knows or with reasonable diligence should know the facts underlying the cause.”); Gust v. Prudential Ins. Co., 898 P.2d 964, 969 (1995) (“The important inquiry in applying the discovery rule is whether the plaintiff’s injury or the conduct causing the injury is difficult for plaintiff to detect, not whether the action sounds in contract or in tort.”)

Tolling:

Discovery: Yes, 2 years

A cause of action does not accrue until the plaintiff knows or with reasonable diligence should know the facts underlying the cause.
Doe v. Roe, 191 Ariz. 313 (1998)

Majority: Yes, 18

Holding that two alleged victims of child sexual abuse could not bring tort claims against their alleged abusers several years after the two-year statute of limitations tolled under Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 12-542 because the victims could maintain their own affairs, understand their legal responsibilities, and found that affidavits sufficiently demonstrated “the alleged victims showed sufficient competence in employment, supporting themselves, taking care of themselves, and understanding their legal rights.
Florez v. Sargeant, 185 Ariz. 521 (Ariz. 1996)

Holding that statute of limitations barred some but not all of plaintiff’s claims. Specifically, all sexual molestation claims beginning rom when victim was twelve years old were barred except those acts occurring less than two years prior to filing the action.
Floyd v. Donahue, 186 Ariz. 409, 923 P.2d 875, 224 Ariz. Adv. Rep. 20, 1996 Ariz. App. LEXIS 185 (Ariz. Ct. App. 1996)

Current Criminal SOL

In Arizona, there is no criminal SOL for victms of violent sexual assault abused when they were under the age of 15, or under 18, if the abuser is a parent, teacher, guardian, or priest.. For other felony offenses, the SOL is capped at age 25 (age of majority, 18, plus 7 years). For misdemeanors, the criminal SOL is capped at age 19.


None for violent sexual assault.
SOL vs. perp. (class 2 through 6 felonies): +7 years from majority = Age 25
SOL vs. perp. (misdemeanor): +1 year from majority = Age 19


Arizona State Law Provides:

Time limitations

A. A prosecution for any homicide, any conspiracy to commit homicide that results in the death of a person, any offense that is listed in chapter 14 or 35.1 of this title 1 and that is a class 2 felony, any violent sexual assault pursuant to §13-1423, any violation of § 13-2308.01 or 13-2308.03, any misuse of public monies or a felony involving falsification of public records or any attempt to commit an offense listed in this subsection may be commenced at any time.
B. Except as otherwise provided in this section and § 28-672, prosecutions for other offenses must be commenced within the following periods after actual discovery by the state or the political subdivision having jurisdiction of the offense or discovery by the state or the political subdivision that should have occurred with the exercise of reasonable diligence, whichever first occurs:

  1. For a class 2 through a class 6 felony, seven years.
  2. For a misdemeanor, one year.
  3. For a petty offense, six months.

C. For the purposes of subsection B of this section, a prosecution is commenced when an indictment, information or complaint is filed.
D. The period of limitation does not run during any time when the accused is absent from the state or has no reasonably ascertainable place of abode within the state.
E. The period of limitation does not run for a serious offense as defined in § 13-706 during any time when the identity of the person who commits the offense or offenses is unknown.
F. The time limitation within which a prosecution of a class 6 felony shall commence shall be determined pursuant to subsection B, paragraph 1 of this section, irrespective of whether a court enters a judgment of conviction for or a prosecuting attorney designates the offense as a misdemeanor.
G. If a complaint, indictment or information filed before the period of limitation has expired is dismissed for any reason, a new prosecution may be commenced within six months after the dismissal becomes final even if the period of limitation has expired at the time of the dismissal or will expire within six months of the dismissal.

A.R.S. § 13-107

Sexual conduct with a minor; classification

A. A person commits sexual conduct with a minor by intentionally or knowingly engaging in sexual intercourse or oral sexual contact with any person who is under eighteen years of age.
B. Sexual conduct with a minor who is under fifteen years of age is a class 2 felony and is punishable pursuant to § 13-705. Sexual conduct with a minor who is at least fifteen years of age is a class 6 felony. Sexual conduct with a minor who is at least fifteen years of age is a class 2 felony if the person is or was in a position of trust and the convicted person is not eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis except as specifically authorized by § 31-233, subsection A or B until the sentence imposed has been served or commuted.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-1405(b)

Reasoning that the trial court misapplied § 13-107(B) discovery rule because the seven-year limitation period only tolled when the authorities knew or should have known that probable cause existed of the commission of the act, where, in fact, despite the victim’s abuse during 1989-1992, it was only in 2000 that law enforcement authorities and the State were conveyed information related to the commission, and thus reversing the trial court’s grant of defendant’s motion to dismiss on the grounds they were barred by the statute of limitations.
State v. Jackson, 208 Ariz. 56, 90 P.3d 793, 428 Ariz. Adv. Rep. 13, 2004 Ariz. App. LEXIS 75 (Ariz. Ct. App. 2004)

Holding that the language of discovery in Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-107(B) is unclear, but the language of “who must know or discover a crime committed” is not as the “statute unequivocally requires that the state or political subdivision thereof actually have discovered or reasonably should have discovered a crime has been committed before the limitation begins to run.”
State v. McSpadden, No. 2 CA-CR 2006-0394-PR, 2007 Ariz. App. Unpub. LEXIS 1113 (App. May 17, 2007)

Establishing that “however unfair it may have been to the [defendant] for the victim to delay in reporting the offenses, any unfairness is not attributable to the state and does not implicate the statute of limitation."
State v. McSpadden, No. 2 CA-CR 2006-0394-PR, 2007 Ariz. App. Unpub. LEXIS 1113 (App. May 17, 2007)

A. A person is guilty of violent sexual assault if in the course of committing an offense under § 13-1404 , 13-1405 , 13-1406 or 13-1410 the offense involved the discharge, use or threatening exhibition of a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument or involved the intentional or knowing infliction of serious physical injury and the person has a historical prior felony conviction for a sexual offense under this chapter or any offense committed outside this state that if committed in this state would constitute a sexual offense under this chapter.

B. Notwithstanding § 13-703 , § 13-704 , § 13-705 , § 13-706, subsection A and § 13-708, subsection D , a person who is guilty of a violent sexual assault shall be sentenced to life imprisonment and the court shall order that the person not be released on any basis for the remainder of the person's natural life.
Arizona Revised Statutes Title 13. Criminal Code § 13-1423. Violent sexual assault;  natural life sentence

Age of Majority: 18. See, Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-101.
Age of Consent: 18. See, Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-1405.
Age of Marriage with Parental Consent: 16 (under 16 with judicial consent). See, Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 25-102.
Age of Marriage without Parental Consent: 18. See, Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 25-102.


DNA Provision

N/A


Medical Neglect Statute

CIVIL MEDICAL NEGLECT STATUTE

No child given Christian Science treatment in good faith by a duly accredited practitioner shall be considered to be an abused, neglected or dependent child for that reason alone.

Arizona Civil Statute:

  1. “Dependent child”:

(a) Means a child who is adjudicated to be:

(i) In need of proper and effective parental care and control and who has no parent or guardian, or one who has no parent or guardian willing to exercise or capable of exercising such care and control.

(ii) Destitute or who is not provided with the necessities of life, including adequate food, clothing, shelter or medical care, or whose home is unfit by reason of abuse, neglect, cruelty or depravity by a parent, a guardian, or any other person having custody or care of the child. . . .

(b) Does not include a child who in good faith is being furnished Christian Science treatment by a duly accredited practitioner if none of the circumstances described in subdivision (a) of this paragraph exists.

Arizona Revised Statutes §8-201.13(b)

Prohibition: [N]o child who in good faith is being furnished Christian Science treatment by a duly accredited practitioner shall, for that reason alone, be considered to be an abused, neglected or dependent child.

Arizona Revised Statutes §8-201.01

[N]o child who in good faith is being furnished Christian Science treatment by a duly accredited practitioner shall, for that reason alone, be considered to be an abused, neglected or dependent child.

Arizona Revised Statutes §8-531.01 (deals with termination of parental rights)

CRIMINAL MEDICAL NEGLECT STATUTE

There is no religious exemption to criminal liability for parents failing to provide medical care based on faith.

Arizone Criminal Statute:
None


Religous Liberty Statute

Religious liberty statute that could put children at risk

Current Law: A.R.S. § 41-1493 TO -1493.04

Enacted: May 19, 1999

§ 41-1493. DEFINITIONS In this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

  1. “Demonstrates” means meets the burdens of going forward with the evidence and of persuasion.

  2. “Exercise of religion” means the ability to act or refusal to act in a manner substantially motivated by a religious belief, whether or not the exercise is compulsory or central to a larger system of religious belief.

  3. “Government” includes this state and any agency or political subdivision of this state.

  4. “Nonreligious assembly or institution” includes all membership organizations, theaters, cultural centers, dance halls, fraternal orders, amphitheaters and places of public assembly regardless of size that a government or political subdivision allows to meet in a zoning district by code or ordinance or by practice.

  5. “Person” includes a religious assembly or institution.

  6. “Political subdivision” includes any county, city, including a charter city, town, school district, municipal corporation or special district, any board, commission or agency of a county, city, including a charter city, town, school district, municipal corporation or special district or any other local public agency. Read More

  7. “Religion-neutral zoning standards”: (a) Means numerically definable standards such as maximum occupancy codes, height restrictions, setbacks, fire codes, parking space requirements, sewer capacity limitations and traffic congestion limitations. (b) Does not include:

    (i)  Synergy with uses that a government holds as more desirable.
      (ii)  The ability to raise tax revenues.
  8. “Suitable alternate property” means a financially feasible property considering the person’s revenue sources and other financial obligations with respect to the person’s exercise of religion and with relation to spending that is in the same zoning district or in a contiguous area that the person finds acceptable for conducting the person’s religious mission and that is large enough to fully accommodate the current and projected seating capacity requirements of the person in a manner that the person deems suitable for the person’s religious mission.

  9. “Unreasonable burden” means that a person is prevented from using the person’s property in a manner that the person finds satisfactory to fulfill the person’s religious mission.

§ 41-1493.01. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION PROTECTED

A. Free exercise of religion is a fundamental right that applies in this state even if laws, rules or other government actions are facially neutral.

B. Except as provided in subsection C, government shall not substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability.

C. Government may substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that application of the burden to the person is both:

1.  In furtherance of a compelling governmental interest.

 2.  The least restrictive means of furthering that compelling governmental interest.

D. A person whose religious exercise is burdened in violation of this section may assert that violation as a claim or defense in a judicial proceeding and obtain appropriate relief against a government. A party who prevails in any action to enforce this article against a government shall recover attorney fees and costs.

E. In this section, the term substantially burden is intended solely to ensure that this article is not triggered by trivial, technical or de minimis infractions.

§ 41-1493.02. APPLICABILITY

A. This article applies to all state and local laws and ordinances and the implementation of those laws and ordinances, whether statutory or otherwise, and whether adopted before or after the effective date of this article.

B. State laws that are adopted after the effective date of this article are subject to this article unless the law explicitly excludes application by reference to this article.

C. This article shall not be construed to authorize any government to burden any religious belief.

§ 41-1493.03. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION; LAND USE REGULATION

A. Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that imposes an unreasonable burden on a person’s exercise of religion, regardless of a compelling governmental interest, unless the government demonstrates one of the following:

1.  That the person’s exercise of religion at a particular location violates religion-neutral zoning standards           enacted into the government’s laws at the time of the person’s application for a permit.
      2.  That the person’s exercise of religion at a particular location would be hazardous due to toxic uses in adjacent properties.
      3.  The existence of a suitable alternate property the person could use for the exercise of religion.

B. Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that treats a religious assembly or institution on less than equal terms with a nonreligious assembly or institution, regardless of a compelling governmental interest.

C. Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that discriminates against an assembly or institution on the basis of religion, regardless of a compelling governmental interest.

D. Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that completely excludes a religious assembly or institution from a jurisdiction or unreasonably limits religious assemblies, institutions or structures within a jurisdiction, regardless of a compelling governmental interest.

§ 41-1493.04. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION; PROFESSIONAL OR OCCUPATIONAL LICENSE; CERTIFICATE OR REGISTRATION; APPOINTMENTS TO GOVERNMENTAL OFFICES; DEFINITION

A. Government shall not deny, revoke or suspend a person’s professional or occupational license, certificate or registration for any of the following and the following are not unprofessional conduct:

1.  Declining to provide or participate in providing any service that violates the person’s sincerely held religious beliefs except performing the duties of a peace officer.

      2.  Refusing to affirm a statement or oath that is contrary to the person’s sincerely held religious beliefs.

      3.  Expressing sincerely held religious beliefs in any context, including a professional context as long as the services provided otherwise meet the current standard of care or practice for the profession.

      4.  Providing faith-based services that otherwise meet the current standard of care or practice for the profession.

      5.  Making business related decisions in accordance with sincerely held religious beliefs such as:

ARIZONA GOV. JAN BREWER VETOES SB 1062

CURRENT LAW: A.R.S. § 41-1493 TO -1493.04

Enacted: May 19, 1999

§ 41-1493. DEFINITIONS In this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

1.  “Demonstrates” means meets the burdens of going forward with the evidence and of persuasion.

 2.  “Exercise of religion” means the ability to act or refusal to act in a manner substantially motivated by a religious belief, whether or not the exercise is compulsory or central to a larger system of religious belief.

 3.  “Government” includes this state and any agency or political subdivision of this state.

 4.  “Nonreligious assembly or institution” includes all membership organizations, theaters, cultural centers, dance halls, fraternal orders, amphitheaters and places of public assembly regardless of size that a government or political subdivision allows to meet in a zoning district by code or ordinance or by practice.

 5.  “Person” includes a religious assembly or institution.

 6.  “Political subdivision” includes any county, city, including a charter city, town, school district, municipal corporation or special district, any board, commission or agency of a county, city, including a charter city, town, school district, municipal corporation or special district or any other local public agency.

  7.  “Religion-neutral zoning standards”:

      (a)  Means numerically definable standards such as maximum occupancy codes, height restrictions, setbacks, fire codes, parking space requirements, sewer capacity limitations and traffic congestion limitations.

      (b)  Does not include:

           (i)  Synergy with uses that a government holds as more desirable.

           (ii)  The ability to raise tax revenues.

 8.  “Suitable alternate property” means a financially feasible property considering the person’s revenue sources and other financial obligations with respect to the person’s exercise of religion and with relation to spending that is in the same zoning district or in a contiguous area that the person finds acceptable for conducting the person’s religious mission and that is large enough to fully accommodate the current and projected seating capacity requirements of the person in a manner that the person deems suitable for the person’s religious mission.

 9.  “Unreasonable burden” means that a person is prevented from using the person’s property in a manner that the person finds satisfactory to fulfill the person’s religious mission.

§ 41-1493.01. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION PROTECTED

A. Free exercise of religion is a fundamental right that applies in this state even if laws, rules or other government actions are facially neutral.

B. Except as provided in subsection C, government shall not substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability.

C. Government may substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that application of the burden to the person is both:

1.  In furtherance of a compelling governmental interest.

 2.  The least restrictive means of furthering that compelling governmental interest.

D. A person whose religious exercise is burdened in violation of this section may assert that violation as a claim or defense in a judicial proceeding and obtain appropriate relief against a government. A party who prevails in any action to enforce this article against a government shall recover attorney fees and costs.

E. In this section, the term substantially burden is intended solely to ensure that this article is not triggered by trivial, technical or de minimis infractions.

§ 41-1493.02. APPLICABILITY

A. This article applies to all state and local laws and ordinances and the implementation of those laws and ordinances, whether statutory or otherwise, and whether adopted before or after the effective date of this article.

B. State laws that are adopted after the effective date of this article are subject to this article unless the law explicitly excludes application by reference to this article.

C. This article shall not be construed to authorize any government to burden any religious belief.

§ 41-1493.03. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION; LAND USE REGULATION

A. Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that imposes an unreasonable burden on a person’s exercise of religion, regardless of a compelling governmental interest, unless the government demonstrates one of the following:

1.  That the person’s exercise of religion at a particular location violates religion-neutral zoning standards enacted into the government’s laws at the time of the person’s application for a permit.

 2.  That the person’s exercise of religion at a particular location would be hazardous due to toxic uses in adjacent properties.

 3.  The existence of a suitable alternate property the person could use for the exercise of religion.

      B.  Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that treats a religious assembly or institution on less than equal terms with a nonreligious assembly or institution, regardless of a compelling governmental interest.

      C.  Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that discriminates against an assembly or institution on the basis of religion, regardless of a compelling governmental interest.

     D.  Government shall not impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that completely excludes a religious assembly or institution from a jurisdiction or unreasonably limits religious assemblies, institutions or structures within a jurisdiction, regardless of a compelling governmental interest.

§ 41-1493.04. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION; PROFESSIONAL OR OCCUPATIONAL LICENSE; CERTIFICATE OR REGISTRATION; APPOINTMENTS TO GOVERNMENTAL OFFICES; DEFINITION

A. Government shall not deny, revoke or suspend a person’s professional or occupational license, certificate or registration for any of the following and the following are not unprofessional conduct:

  1. Declining to provide or participate in providing any service that violates the person’s sincerely held religious beliefs except performing the duties of a peace officer.
  2. Refusing to affirm a statement or oath that is contrary to the person’s sincerely held religious beliefs.
  3. Expressing sincerely held religious beliefs in any context, including a professional context as long as the services provided otherwise meet the current standard of care or practice for the profession.
  4. Providing faith-based services that otherwise meet the current standard of care or practice for the profession.
  5. Making business related decisions in accordance with sincerely held religious beliefs such as: (a) Employment decisions, unless otherwise prohibited by state or federal law. (b) Client selection decisions. (c) Financial decisions. B. Government shall not deny a person an appointment to public office or a position on a board, commission or committee based on the person’s exercise of religion. C. This section is not a defense to and does not authorize any person to engage in sexual misconduct or any criminal conduct. D. This section does not authorize any person to engage in conduct that is prohibited under the constitution of the United States or of this state or section 15-535. E. This section does not authorize any person to engage in conduct that violates the emergency medical treatment and active labor act (P.L. 99-272; 100 stat. 164; 42 United States Code section 1395dd) or the religious land use and institutionalized persons act (P.L. 106-274; 114 Stat. 803; 42 United States Code section 2000cc-1) as of the effective date of this section. F. For the purposes of this section, “government” includes all courts and administrative bodies or entities under the jurisdiction of the Arizona supreme court.

2015 Pending Bills None as of January 2015.

PREVIOUSLY INTRODUCED LEGISLATION 2013-2014:

2/26: Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer vetoes SB 1062

Fifty-first Legislature Analyst Initials ___ Second Regular Session February 24, 2014 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SB 1062 / HB 2153 exercise of religion; state action. Sponsors: Senators Yarbrough: Barto, Worsley

W/D Committee on Judiciary DPA Committee on Government DPA Caucus and COW X As Transmitted to Governor

OVERVIEW HB 2153 revises the definition of exercise of religion and person and extends the prohibition on substantially burdening a person’s exercise of religion to applications of the law by nongovernmental persons.

HISTORY Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The latter portion of the provision is known as the Free Exercise Clause. In 1990, Congress passed the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), which instructed courts to apply strict scrutiny when government substantially burdens a person’s exercise of religion, even if the burden results from a law of general applicability. However, the United States Supreme Court has since held that the federal RFRA may not be extended to the states and local governments (City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997)).

In response to City of Boerne v. Flores, Arizona enacted state-level protection from the government substantially burdening the free exercise of religion using the strict scrutiny compelling interest test (Laws 1999, Chapter 332). Accordingly, government may substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that application of the burden to the person is both in furtherance of a compelling governmental interest and the least restrictive means of furthering that compelling governmental interest (A.R.S. § 41-1493.01). Exercise of religion is defined as the ability to act or refusal to act in a manner substantially motivated by a religious belief, whether or not the exercise is compulsory or central to a larger system of religious belief (A.R.S. § 41-1493).

PROVISIONS • Expands the definition of exercise of religion by including the practice and observance of religion. • Expands the definition of person to include any individual, association, partnership, corporation, church, or other business entity. • Modifies, from government to state action, the prohibition on burdening a person’s exercise of religion, except under certain circumstances. • Clarifies that the government or a nongovernmental person enforcing state action must demonstrate that the application of the burden to the person’s exercise of religion is in furtherance of a compelling governmental interest and is the least restrictive means of furthering the compelling governmental interest. SB 1062 / HB 2153

Fifty-first Legislature Second Regular Session 2 February 24, 2014 • Maintains that a person whose religious exercise is burdened in violation of this Act may assert that violation as a claim or defense in a judicial proceeding and specifies that this applies regardless of whether the government is a party to the proceeding. • Stipulates that a person that asserts a violation of this Act must establish the following:  The person’s action or refusal to act is motivated by a religious belief;  The person’s religious belief is sincerely held; and  The state action substantially burdens the exercise of the person’s religious beliefs. • Allows a person asserting a claim or defense in a judicial proceeding, whose religious exercise is burdened, to receive injunctive and declaratory relief. • Prescribes the definition of state action to include government action and the application of any law by a nongovernmental person and specifies that the requirements in statute relating to professional or occupational licenses and appointments to government offices are not included in the definition of state action. • Makes technical and conforming changes.


The information provided is solely for informational purposes and is not legal advice.  To determine the SOL in a particular case, contact a lawyer in the state.