Child Sex Trafficking Statutes of Limitation at a Glance

Final Sex Trafficking Graphic 1970-2019 (4).png
Child Sex Trafficking Criminal Statutes of Limitations (2).png

Federal Trafficking

Definition and Criminal Statute of Limitation


Definition: 18 U.S.C.A. § 1591: Sex Trafficking of Children by Force, Fraud, or Coercion
(a) Whoever knowingly—

    • (1) in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, obtains, advertises, maintains, patronizes, or solicits by any means a person; or

    • (2) benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture which has engaged in an act described in violation of paragraph (1),

    • knowing, or, except where the act constituting the violation of paragraph (1) is advertising, in reckless disregard of the fact, that means of force, threats of force, fraud, coercion described in subsection (e)(2), or any combination of such means will be used to cause the person to engage in a commercial sex act, or that the person has not attained the age of 18 years and will be caused to engage in a commercial sex act, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

·     Federal criminal statute of limitations: 18 U.S.C.A. § 3299 

·     Notwithstanding any other law, an indictment may be found or an information instituted at any time without limitation for any offense under section 1201 [18 USCS § 1201] involving a minor victim, and for any felony under chapter 109A [18 USCS §§ 2241 et seq.], 110 [18 USCS §§ 2251 et seq.] (except for section [sections] 2257 and 2257A [18 USCS § 2257 and 2257A]), or 117 [18 USCS §§ 2421 et seq.], or section 1591 [18 USCS § 1591].

·     Federal civil statute of limitations: 18 U.S.C.A. § 1595

·     (c) No action may be maintained under subsection (a) unless it is commenced not later than the later of—

§ (1) 10 years after the cause of action arose; or

§ (2) 10 years after the victim reaches 18 years of age, if the victim was a minor at the time of the alleged offense.



State Trafficking

Definitions and Criminal Statutes of Limitations

  • Alabama

    • Definition: Ala. Code § 13A-6-152: Human trafficking in the first degree

      • (a) A person commits the crime of human trafficking in the first degree if:

        • (1) He or she knowingly subjects another person to labor servitude or sexual servitude through the use of coercion or deception.

        • (2) He or she knowingly obtains, recruits, entices, solicits, induces, threatens, isolates, harbors, holds, restrains, transports, provides, or maintains any minor for the purpose of causing a minor to engage in sexual servitude.

        • (3) He or she knowingly gives monetary consideration or any other thing of value to engage in any sexual conduct with a minor or an individual he or she believes to be a minor

      • (e) Human trafficking in the first degree is a Class A felony.

    • Definition: Ala. Code § 13A-6-153: Human trafficking in the second degree

      • (a) A person commits the crime of human trafficking in the second degree if:

        • (1) A person knowingly benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture or engagement for the purpose of sexual servitude or labor servitude.

        • (2) A person knowingly recruits, entices, solicits, induces, harbors, transports, holds, restrains, provides, maintains, subjects, or obtains by any means another person for the purpose of labor servitude or sexual servitude.

        • (3) A corporation, or any other legal entity other than an individual, may be prosecuted for human trafficking in the second degree for an act or omission only if an agent of the corporation or entity performs the conduct which is an element of the crime while acting within the scope of his or her office or employment and on behalf of the corporation or entity, and the commission of the crime was either authorized, requested, commanded, performed, or within the scope of the person's employment on behalf of the corporation or entity or constituted a pattern of conduct that an agent of the corporation or entity knew or should have known was occurring.

      • (b) Human trafficking in the second degree is a Class B felony.

    • Criminal statute of limitations: Ala. Code § 15-3-1

      • Except as otherwise provided by law, the prosecution of all felonies, except those specified in Section 15-3-3, Section 15-3-5, or any other felony that has a specified limitations period, shall be commenced within five years after the commission of the offense.

    • Criminal statute of limitations: Ala. Code § 15-3-5

      • There is no limitation of the time within which a prosecution must be commenced for:

        • (4) Any sex offense involving a victim under 16 years of age, regardless of whether it involves force or serious physical injury or death

    • Civil statute of limitations: Ala. Code § 13A-6-158

      • (a)(1) Except as provided in subsection (c), an action for an offense defined by this article where the victim is not a minor shall be brought within five years from the date the victim was removed or escaped from the human trafficking situation.

        • (2) Any statute of limitations that would otherwise preclude prosecution for an offense involving the trafficking of a minor, or the physical or sexual abuse of a minor, shall be tolled until such time as the victim has reached the age of 19 years.

        • (3) The running of the statute of limitations shall be suspended where a person entitled to bring a claim of an offense defined by this article could not have reasonably discovered the crime due to circumstances resulting from the human trafficking situation, such as psychological trauma, cultural and linguistic isolation, and the inability to access services.

      • (b) Any statute of limitation period imposed for the filing of a civil action under this article will not begin to run until the plaintiff discovers both that the sex trade act occurred and that the defendant caused, was responsible for, or profited from the sex trade act.

        • (1) If the plaintiff is a minor, then the limitation period will not commence running until he or she has reached the age of majority.

        • (2) If the plaintiff is under a disability at the time the cause of action accrues, so that it is impossible or impractical for him or her to bring an action, then the time of the disability is not part of the time limited for the commencement of the action. Disability includes, but is not limited to, insanity, imprisonment, or other incapacity or incompetence.

        • (3) If the plaintiff's injury is caused by two or more acts that are part of a continuing series of sex trade acts by the same defendant, then the limitation period will not commence running until the last sex trade act in the continuing series occurs.

        • (4) If the plaintiff is subject to threats, intimidation, manipulation, or fraud perpetrated by the defendant or by any person acting in the interest of the defendant, then the time when these acts occur will not be part of the time limited for the commencement of this action.

      • (c) There shall be no limitation period for civil actions brought under this article by the Attorney General.

 

  • Alaska

    • Definition: Alaska Stat. Ann. § 11.41.360 (West): Human Trafficking First Degree

      • Offense Defined: (a) A person commits the crime of human trafficking in the first degree if the person compels or induces another person to engage in sexual conduct, adult entertainment, or labor in the state by force or threat of force against any person, or by deception.

    • Definition: Alaska Stat. Ann. § 11.41.365 (West): Human Trafficking Second Degree

      • Offense defined: A person commits the crime of human trafficking in the second degree if the person obtains a benefit from the commission of human trafficking under AS 11.41.360, with reckless disregard that the benefit is a result of the trafficking.

    • Statute of limitations: Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.10.010 (West)

      • (a) Prosecution for the following offenses may be commenced at any time:

        • 9) human trafficking in violation of AS 11.41.360 or 11.41.365.

 

  • Arizona

    • Definition: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-1307: Sex Trafficking

    • Offense defined: A. It is unlawful for a person to knowingly traffic another person who is eighteen years of age or older with either of the following: 1. The intent to cause the other person to engage in any prostitution or sexually explicit performance by deception, force or coercion. 2. The knowledge that the other person will engage in any prostitution or sexually explicit performance by deception, coercion or force. B. A person who violates this section is guilty of a class 2 Felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Ariz. Rev. Stat, Ann. §13-107

      • A. A prosecution for any homicide, any conspiracy to commit homicide that results in the death of a person, any offense that is listed in chapter 14 or 35.1 of this title and that is a class 2 felony, any violent sexual assault pursuant to § 13-1423, any violation of § 13-2308.01 or 13-2308.03, any misuse of public monies or a felony involving falsification of public records or any attempt to commit an offense listed in this subsection may be commenced at any time. B. Except as otherwise provided in this section and § 28-672, prosecutions for other offenses must be commenced within the following periods after actual discovery by the state or the political subdivision having jurisdiction of the offense or discovery by the state or the political subdivision that should have occurred with the exercise of reasonable diligence, whichever first occurs:

        • 1. For a class 2 through a class 6 felony, seven years.

 

  • Arkansas

    • Definition: Ark. Code Ann. § 5-18-103 (West): Trafficking of Persons

      • (a) A person commits the offense of trafficking of persons if he or she knowingly: (1) Recruits, harbors, transports, obtains, entices, solicits, isolates, provides, or maintains a person knowing that the person will be subjected to involuntary servitude; (2) Benefits financially or benefits by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture under subdivision (a)(1) of this section; (3) Subjects a person to involuntary servitude; (4) Recruits, entices, solicits, isolates, harbors, transports, provides, maintains, or obtains a minor for commercial sexual activity; or (5) Sells or offers to sell travel services that he or she knows includes an activity prohibited under subdivisions (a)(1)-(4) of this section. (c)(2) Trafficking of persons is a Class Y felony if a victim was a minor at the time of the offense.

    • Statute of Limitations: Ark. Code Ann. § 5-1-109 (West)

      • (a)(1) A prosecution for the following offenses may be commenced at any time:(E) Sexual indecency with a child, § 5-14-110; (F) Sexual assault in the first degree, § 5-14-124; (G) Sexual assault in the second degree, § 5-14-125, if the victim was a minor at the time of the offense; (I) Engaging children in sexually explicit conduct for use in visual or print medium, § 5-27-303; (J) Transportation of minors for prohibited sexual conduct, § 5-27-305; (K) Employing or consenting to the use of a child in a sexual performance, § 5-27-402; (L) Producing, directing, or promoting a sexual performance by a child, § 5-27-403; and (M) Computer exploitation of a child in the first degree, § 5-27-605

      • (b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a prosecution for another offense shall be commenced within the following periods of limitation after the offense's commission:
        (1)(A) Class Y felony or Class A felony, six (6) years.

 

  • California

    • Definition: Cal. Pen Code § 236.1 (West): Human Trafficking

      • (b) A person who deprives or violates the personal liberty of another with the intent to effect or maintain a violation of Section 266, 266h, 266i, 266j, 267, 311.1, 311.2, 311.3, 311.4, 311.5, 311.6, or 518 is guilty of human trafficking. (c) A person who causes, induces, or persuades, or attempts to cause, induce, or persuade, a person who is a minor at the time of commission of the offense to engage in a commercial sex act, with the intent to effect or maintain a violation of Section 266, 266h, 266i, 266j, 267, 311.1, 311.2, 311.3, 311.4, 311.5, 311.6, or 518 is guilty of human trafficking. A violation of this subdivision is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison as follows:

        • (1) Five, 8, or 12 years…

        • (2) Fifteen years to life and a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000) when the offense involves force, fear, fraud, deceit, coercion, violence, duress, menace, or threat of unlawful injury to the victim or to another person.

    • Criminal statute of limitations: Cal. Pen. Code § 800

      • Except as provided in Section 799, prosecution for an offense punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for eight years or more or by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 for eight years or more shall be commenced within six years after commission of the offense.

    • Civil Statute of limitations: Cal. Civ. Code § 52.5 (West)

      • (c) An action brought pursuant to this section shall be commenced within seven years of the date on which the trafficking victim was freed from the trafficking situation or, if the victim was a minor when the act of human trafficking against the victim occurred, within 10 years after the date the plaintiff attains the age of majority.

      • (d) If a person entitled to sue is under a disability at the time the cause of action accrues so that it is impossible or impracticable for him or her to bring an action, the time of the disability is not part of the time limited for the commencement of the action. Disability will toll the running of the statute of limitations for this action. (1) Disability includes being a minor, lacking legal capacity to make decisions, imprisonment, or other incapacity or incompetence. (2) The statute of limitations shall not run against a plaintiff who is a minor or who lacks the legal competence to make decisions simply because a guardian ad litem has been appointed. A guardian ad litem's failure to bring a plaintiff's action within the applicable limitation period will not prejudice the plaintiff's right to bring an action after his or her disability ceases.

      • (e) The running of the statute of limitations may be suspended if a person entitled to sue could not have reasonably discovered the cause of action due to circumstances resulting from the trafficking situation, such as psychological trauma, cultural and linguistic isolation, and the inability to access services.

 

  • Colorado

    • Definition: Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 18-3-504 (West): Human Trafficking for Sexual Servitude – Human Trafficking of a Minor for Sexual Servitude

      • (1)(a) A person who knowingly sells, recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, isolates, entices, provides, receives, or obtains by any means another person for the purpose of coercing the person to engage in commercial sexual activity commits human trafficking for sexual servitude. (b) Human trafficking for sexual servitude is a class 3 felony. (2)(a)(I) A person who knowingly sells, recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, isolates, entices, provides, receives, obtains by any means, maintains, or makes available a minor for the purpose of commercial sexual activity commits human trafficking of a minor for sexual servitude. (II) A person who knowingly advertises, offers to sell, or sells travel services that facilitate an activity prohibited pursuant to subsection (2)(a)(I) of this section commits human trafficking of a minor for sexual servitude. (b) Human trafficking of a minor for sexual servitude is a class 2 felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 16-5-401 (West)

      • (1)(a) Except as otherwise provided by statute applicable to specific offenses, delinquent acts, or circumstances, no adult person or juvenile shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any offense or delinquent act unless the indictment, information, complaint, or petition in delinquency is filed in a court of competent jurisdiction or a summons and complaint or penalty assessment notice is served upon the defendant or juvenile within the period of time after the commission of the offense or delinquent act as specified below:

      • Murder, kidnapping, treason, any sex offense against a child, and any forgery regardless of the penalty provided: No limit

      • attempt, conspiracy, or solicitation to commit any sex offense against a child; penalty provided: No limit

 

  • Connecticut

    • Definition: Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 53a-192a (West): Trafficking in Persons

      • Offense defined: (a) A person is guilty of trafficking in persons when such person (1) compels or induces another person to engage in conduct involving sexual contact with one or more third persons, or provide labor or services that such person has a legal right to refrain from providing, by means of (A) the use of force against such other person or a third person, or by the threat of use of force against such other person or a third person, (B) fraud, or (C) coercion, as provided in section 53a-192, (2) compels or induces another person who is under eighteen years of age to engage in conduct involving sexual contact with one or more third persons that constitutes sexual contact for which such third person may be charged with a criminal offense, or (3) otherwise commits an act that constitutes sex trafficking. For the purposes of this subsection, “sexual contact” means any contact with the intimate parts of another person, and “sex trafficking” means the recruitment, harboring, transportation or provision of a person for the purpose of engaging in sexual conduct with another person for a fee. (b) Trafficking in persons is a class A felony.

    • Criminal statute of limitations: Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 54-193a

      • Notwithstanding the provisions of section 54-193, no person may be prosecuted for any offense, except a class A felony, involving sexual abuse, sexual exploitation or sexual assault of a minor except within thirty years from the date the victim attains the age of majority or within five years from the date the victim notifies any police officer or state’s attorney acting in such police officer’s or state’s attorney’s official capacity of the commission of the offense, whichever is earlier, provided if the prosecution is for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53a-71, the victim notified such police officer or state’s attorney not later than five years after the commission of the offense.

    • Civil Statute of limitations: Adult: Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 52-577e (West)

      • Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 52-577 and 52-577d, an action to recover damages for personal injury caused by sexual assault may be brought at any time after the date of the act complained of if the party legally at fault for such injury has been convicted of a violation of section 53a-70 or 53a-70a.

    • Civil statute of limitations: Minor: Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 52-577d (West)

      • Notwithstanding the provisions of section 52-577, no action to recover damages for personal injury to a minor, including emotional distress, caused by sexual abuse, sexual exploitation or sexual assault may be brought by such person later than thirty years from the date such person attains the age of majority

 

  • Delaware

    • Definition: Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 787 (West): Trafficking an Individual, Forced Labor and Sexual Servitude

      • (b) Prohibited activities –

        • (1) Trafficking an individual. - A person is guilty of trafficking an individual if the person knowingly recruits, transports, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains, advertises, solicits, or entices an individual in furtherance of forced labor in violation of paragraph (b)(2) of this section or sexual servitude in violation of paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Trafficking an individual is a class C felony unless the individual is a minor, in which case it is a class B felony.

      • (6) Aggravating circumstance. — An aggravating circumstance during the commission of an offense under paragraphs (b)(1)-(3) of this section occurs when:

        • a. The person recruited, enticed, or obtained the victim from a shelter designed to serve victims of human trafficking, victims of domestic violence, victims of sexual assault, runaway youth, foster children, or the homeless; or

        • b. The person used or threatened use of force against, abduction of, serious harm to, or physical restraint of the victim.

      • If an aggravating circumstance occurred, the classification of the offense under paragraphs (b)(1)-(3) of this section is elevated by 1 felony grade higher than the underlying offense.

    • Criminal statute of limitations: Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 205 (West)

      • (b) (1) A prosecution for any felony except murder or any class A felony, or any attempt to commit said crimes, must be commenced within 5 years after it is committed…

      • (e) Notwithstanding the period prescribed by subsection (b) of this section, a prosecution for any crime that is delineated in § 787 of this title and in which the victim is a minor, subpart D of subchapter II of Chapter 5 of this title, or is otherwise defined as a “sexual offense” by § 761 of this title except § 763, § 764 or § 765 of this title, or any attempt to commit said crimes, may be commenced at any time.

    • Civil Statute of limitations: Del. Code Ann. Tit 11, § 787

      • (i)(3) An action under this subsection must be commenced not later than 5 years after the later of the date on which the victim: (a.) was freed from the human trafficking situation; or (b.) attained 18 years of age.

  • Washington D.C.

    • Definition: D.C. Code Ann. § 22-1834 (West): Sex Trafficking of Children

      • (a) It is unlawful for an individual or a business knowingly to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, obtain, or maintain by any means a person who will be caused as a result to engage in a commercial sex act knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that the person has not attained the age of 18 years.

      • (b) In a prosecution under subsection (a) of this section in which the defendant had a reasonable opportunity to observe the person recruited, enticed, harbored, transported, provided, obtained, or maintained, the government need not prove that the defendant knew that the person had not attained the age of 18 years.

    • Civil statute of limitations: D.C. Code Ann. § 22-1840 (West)

      • (b) Any statute of limitation imposed for the filing of a civil suit under this section shall not begin to run until the plaintiff knew, or reasonably should have known, of any act constituting a violation of § 22-1832, § 22-1833, § 22-1834, § 22-1835 or § 22-1836, or until a minor plaintiff has reached the age of majority, whichever is later. (c) If a person entitled to sue is imprisoned, insane, or similarly incapacitated at the time the cause of action accrues, so that it is impossible or impracticable for him or her to bring an action, then the time of the incapacity is not part of the time limited for the commencement of the action

    • Criminal statute of limitations: D.C. Code Ann. § 23-113 (West)

      • (3) A prosecution for the following crimes and any offense that is properly joinable with any of the following crimes is barred if not commenced within ten (10) years after it is committed: (J) Trafficking in labor or commercial sex and sex trafficking of children as prohibited by [D.C. Official Code §§ 22-1833 and 22-1834], respectively;

 

 

  • Florida

    • Definition: Fla. Stat. Ann. § 787.06 (West): Human Trafficking

      • (3) Any person who knowingly, or in reckless disregard of the facts, engages in human trafficking, or attempts to engage in human trafficking, or benefits financially by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has subjected a person to human trafficking:

        • (b) Using coercion for commercial sexual activity of an adult commits a felony of the first degree;

        • (d) Using coercion for commercial sexual activity of an adult who is an unauthorized alien commits a felony of the first degree;

·     (f) 

o  1. For commercial sexual activity who does so by the transfer or transport of any child under the age of 18 from outside this state to within the state commits a felony of the first degree; 

o  2. Using coercion for commercial sexual activity who does so by the transfer or transport of an adult from outside this state to within the state commits a felony of the first degree; 

·     (g) For commercial sexual activity in which any child under the age of 18, or in which any person who is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated as those terms are defined in s. 794.011(1), is involved commits a life felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Fla. Stat. Ann. § 775.15 (West)

      • (1) A prosecution for a capital felony, a life felony, or a felony that resulted in a death may be commenced at any time.

      • (2) (a) A prosecution for a felony of the first degree must be commenced within 4 years after it is committed.

      • (19) A prosecution for a violation of § 787.06 may be commenced at any time. This subsection applies to any such offense except an offense the prosecution of which would have been barred by subsection (2) on or before October 1, 2014.

 

  • Georgia

    • Definition: Ga. Code Ann. § 16-5-46 (West): Trafficking of Persons for Labor or Sexual Servitude

      • (c) A person commits the offense of trafficking an individual for sexual servitude when that person knowingly:

        • (1) Subjects an individual to or maintains an individual in sexual servitude;

        • (2) Recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means an individual for the purpose of sexual servitude; or

        • (3) Solicits or patronizes by any means an individual to perform sexually explicit conduct on behalf of such person when such individual is the subject of sexual servitude.

      • (f) (3) Except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, any person who violates paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (c) of this Code section shall be guilty of a felony.

      • (f) (4) Any person who violates paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (c) of this Code section committed against an individual under 18 years of age and such individual under the age of 18 years was coerced or deceived into such violation or if such violation is committed against an individual who has a developmental disability, such person shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than 25 nor more than 50 years or life imprisonment.

      • (f)(5) Any person who violates paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of this Code section shall be guilty of a felony. When such offense is committed against an individual who is 16 years of age or older, upon conviction, such person shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than five nor more than 20 years. When such offense is committed against an individual who is younger than 16 years of age or an individual known to have a developmental disability, upon conviction, such person shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than ten nor more than 20 years.

    • Statute of limitations: Ga. Code Ann. § 17-3-1 (West)

      • (b) Except as otherwise provided in Code Section 17-3-2.1, prosecution for other crimes punishable by death or life imprisonment shall be commenced within seven years after the commission of the crime except as provided by subsection (d) of this Code section; provided, however, that prosecution for the crime of forcible rape shall be commenced within 15 years after the commission of the crime.

      • (c) Except as otherwise provided in Code Section 17-3-2.1, prosecution for felonies other than those specified in subsections (a), (b), and (d) of this Code section shall be commenced within four years after the commission of the crime, provided that prosecution for felonies committed against victims who are at the time of the commission of the offense under the age of 18 years shall be commenced within seven years after the commission of the crime.

    • Statute of Limitations: Ga. Code Ann. § 17-3-2.1: Victim Under 16

      • (b) For crimes committed on and after July 1, 2012, if the victim of a violation of:

        • (1) Trafficking a person for sexual servitude, as defined in Code Section 16-5-46… is under 16 years of age on the date of the violation and the violation is not subject to punishment as provided in paragraph (2) of subsection (b) of Code Section 16-6-4, paragraph (2) of subsection (d) of Code Section 16-6-4, or subsection (c) of Code Section 16-6-5, a prosecution may be commenced at any time.

 

  • Hawaii

    • Definition: Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 712-1202 (West): Sex Trafficking

      • (1) A person commits the offense of sex trafficking if the person knowingly:

        • (a) Advances prostitution by compelling or inducing a person by force, threat, fraud, or intimidation to engage in prostitution, or profits from such conduct by another; or

        • (b) Advances or profits from prostitution of a minor; provided that with respect to the victim's age, the prosecution shall be required to prove only that the person committing the offense acted negligently.

      • (2) Sex trafficking is a class A felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 701-108 (West)

      • (2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, prosecutions for other offenses are subject to the following periods of limitation:

        • (b) A prosecution for a class A felony must be commenced within six years after it is committed;

      • (6) The period of limitation does not run:

        • (a) During any time when the accused is continuously absent from the State or has no reasonably ascertainable place of abode or work within the State, but in no case shall this provision extend the period of limitation by more than four years from the expiration of the period of limitation prescribed in subsection (2);

        • (b) During any time when a prosecution against the accused for the same conduct is pending in this State; or

        • (c) For any felony offense under chapter 707, part V or VI, during any time when the victim is alive and under eighteen years of age.

 

  • Idaho

    • Definition: Idaho Code Ann. § 18-8602 (West): Human Trafficking Defined

      • “Human trafficking” means:

        • (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained eighteen (18) years of age; or

        • (2) The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.

    • Statute of limitations: Idaho Code Ann. § 19-402 (West)

      • A prosecution for any felony other than those specified in section 19-401, Idaho Code, must be commenced by the filing of the complaint or the finding of an indictment within five (5) years after its commission provided however, a prosecution under section 18-1506A, Idaho Code, must be commenced within three (3) years after the date of initial disclosure by the victim.

 

  • Illinois

    • Definition: 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/10-9: Trafficking in Persons

      • (d) Trafficking in persons. A person commits trafficking in persons when he or she knowingly: (1) recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, or attempts to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means, another person, intending or knowing that the person will be subjected to involuntary servitude; or (2) benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture that has engaged in an act of involuntary servitude or involuntary sexual servitude of a minor.

      • Sentence. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) or (f), a violation of this subsection is a Class 1 felony.

      • (e) Aggravating factors. A violation of this Section involving kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated criminal sexual assault or an attempt to commit aggravated criminal sexual assault, or an attempt to commit first degree murder is a Class X felony.

    • Statute of limitations: 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3-5

      • (b) Unless the statute describing the offense provides otherwise, or the period of limitation is extended by Section 3-6, a prosecution for any offense not designated in subsection (a) or (a-5) must be commenced within 3 years after the commission of the offense if it is a felony…

    • Statute of limitations: 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3-6: Extended limitations

      • The period within which a prosecution must be commenced under the provisions of Section 3-5 [720 ILCS 5/3-5] or other applicable statute is extended under the following conditions:

        • (b-5) When the victim is under 18 years of age at the time of the offense, a prosecution for involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons and related offenses under Section 10-9 of this Code [720 ILCS 5/10-9] may be commenced within 25 years of the victim attaining the age of 18 years.

 

  • Indiana

    • Definition: Ind. Code Ann. § 35-42-3.5-1.1 (West): Promotion of Human Sexual Trafficking

      • A person who knowingly or intentionally uses force, threat of force, coercion, or fraud to recruit, entice, harbor, or transport an individual with the intent of causing the individual to:

        • (1) marry another person;

        • (2) engage in prostitution; or

        • (3) participate in sexual conduct; commits promotion of human sexual trafficking, a Level 4 felony.

    • Definition: Ind. Code Ann. § 35-42-3.5-1.3: Child Sexual Trafficking

      • A person who is at least eighteen (18) years of age who knowingly or intentionally sells or transfers custody of a child less than eighteen (18) years of age for the purpose of prostitution, juvenile prostitution, or participating in sexual conduct commits child sexual trafficking, a Level 2 felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Ind. Code Ann. § 35-41-4-2 (West)

      • (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a prosecution for an offense is barred unless it is commenced: (1) within five (5) years after the commission of the offense, in the case of a Class B, Class C, or Class D felony (for a crime committed before July 1, 2014) or a Level 3, Level 4, Level 5, or Level 6 felony (for a crime committed after June 30, 2014);

      • (c) A prosecution for a Class A felony (for a crime committed before July 1, 2014) or a Level 1 felony or Level 2 felony (for a crime committed after June 30, 2014) may be commenced at any time.

 

  • Iowa

    • Definition: Iowa Code Ann. § 710A.2 (West): Human Trafficking

      • 1. A person who knowingly engages in human trafficking is guilty of a class “D” felony, except that if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “C” felony.

      • 2. A person who knowingly engages in human trafficking by causing or threatening to cause serious physical injury to another person is guilty of a class “C” felony, except that if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “B” felony.

      • 3. A person who knowingly engages in human trafficking by physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain another person is guilty of a class “D” felony, except that if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “C” felony.

      • 4. A person who knowingly engages in human trafficking by soliciting services or benefiting from the services of a victim is guilty of a class “D” felony, except that if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “C” felony.

      • 5. A person who knowingly engages in human trafficking by abusing or threatening to abuse the law or legal process is guilty of a class “D” felony, except that if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “C” felony.

      • 6. A person who knowingly engages in human trafficking by knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document of a victim is guilty of a class “D” felony, except that if that other person is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “C” felony.

      • 7. A person who benefits financially or by receiving anything of value from knowing participation in human trafficking is guilty of a class “D” felony, except that if the victim is under the age of eighteen, the person is guilty of a class “C” felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Iowa Code Ann. § 802.2D (West)

      • An information or indictment for human trafficking in violation of section 710A.2, committed on or with a person who is under the age of eighteen years shall be found within ten years after the person upon whom the offense is committed attains eighteen years of age, or if the person against whom the information or indictment is sought is identified through the use of a DNA profile, an information or indictment shall be found within three years from the date the person is identified by the person's DNA profile, whichever is later.

 

  • Kansas

    • Definition: Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-5426 (West): Human Trafficking; Aggravated Human Trafficking

      • (a) Human trafficking is:

        • (1) Except as provided in subsection (b)(4) and (5), the intentional recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjecting the person to involuntary servitude or forced labor;

        • (2) intentionally benefitting financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that the person has reason to know has engaged in acts set forth in subsection (a)(1)…

      • (b) Aggravated human trafficking is:

        • (2) human trafficking, as defined in subsection (a), committed in whole or in part for the purpose of the sexual gratification of the defendant or another;

        • (4) recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing or obtaining, by any means, a child knowing that the child, with or without force, fraud, threat or coercion, will be used to engage in: (A) Forced labor; (B) involuntary servitude; or (C) sexual gratification of the defendant or another involving the exchange of anything of value; or

        • (5) hiring a child by giving, or offering or agreeing to give, anything of value to any person, to engage in manual or other bodily contact stimulation of the genitals of any person with the intent to arouse or gratify the sexual desires of the offender or another, sexual intercourse, sodomy or any unlawful sexual act, and the offender recklessly disregards the age of the child.

    • Statute of limitations: Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-5107 (West)

      • (c) Except as provided in subsection (e), a prosecution for a sexually violent crime as defined in K.S.A. 22-3717, and amendments thereto:

        • (1) When the victim is 18 years of age or older shall be commenced within 10 years or one year from the date on which the identity of the suspect is conclusively established by DNA testing, whichever is later; or

        • (2) when the victim is under 18 years of age shall be commenced within 10 years of the date the victim turns 18 years of age or one year from the date on which the identity of the suspect is conclusively established by DNA testing, whichever is later.

 

  • Kentucky

    • Definition: Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 529.100 (West): Human Trafficking

      • (1) A person is guilty of human trafficking when the person intentionally subjects one (1) or more persons to human trafficking.

      • (2) (a) Human trafficking is a Class C felony unless it involves serious physical injury to a trafficked person, in which case it is a Class B felony. (b) If the victim of human trafficking is under eighteen (18) years of age, the penalty for the offense shall be one (1) level higher than the level otherwise specified in this section.

    • Statute of limitations: Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 500.050 (West)

      • (1) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the prosecution of a felony is not subject to a period of limitation and may be commenced at any time.

 

  • Louisiana

    • Definition: La. Stat. Ann. § 14:46.2: Human Trafficking

    • A. It shall be unlawful:

      • (1)(a) For any person to knowingly recruit, harbor, transport, provide, solicit, receive, isolate, entice, obtain, or maintain the use of another person through fraud, force, or coercion to provide services or labor.

      • (b) For any person to knowingly recruit, harbor, transport, provide, solicit, sell, purchase, receive, isolate, entice, obtain, or maintain the use of a person under the age of twenty-one years for the purpose of engaging in commercial sexual activity regardless of whether the person was recruited, harbored, transported, provided, solicited, sold, purchased, received, isolated, enticed, obtained, or maintained through fraud, force, or coercion.

    • Definition: La. Stat. Ann. § 14:46.3: Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes

    • A. It shall be unlawful:

      • (1) For any person to knowingly recruit, harbor, transport, provide, sell, purchase, receive, isolate, entice, obtain, or maintain the use of a person under the age of eighteen years for the purpose of engaging in commercial sexual activity.

      • (2) For any person to knowingly benefit from activity prohibited by the provisions of this Section.

    • Statute of limitations: La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 571.1

      • Except as provided by Article 572 of this Chapter, the time within which to institute prosecution of the following sex offenses, regardless of whether the crime involves force, serious physical injury, death, or is punishable by imprisonment at hard labor shall be thirty years: attempted first degree rape, also formerly titled aggravated rape (R.S. 14:27, R.S. 14:42), attempted second degree rape, also formerly titled forcible rape (R.S. 14:27, R.S. 14:42.1), sexual battery (R.S. 14:43.1), second degree sexual battery (R.S. 14:43.2), oral sexual battery (R.S. 14:43.3), human trafficking (R.S. 14:46.2(B)(2) or (3)), trafficking of children for sexual purposes (R.S. 14:46.3), felony carnal knowledge of a juvenile (R.S. 14:80), indecent behavior with juveniles (R.S. 14:81), pornography involving juveniles (R.S. 14:81.1), molestation of a juvenile (R.S. 14:81.2), prostitution of persons under eighteen (R.S. 14:82.1), enticing persons into prostitution (R.S. 14:86), crime against nature (R.S. 14:89), aggravated crime against nature (R.S. 14:89.1), crime against nature by solicitation (R.S. 14:89.2(B)(3)), that involves a victim under seventeen years of age. This thirty-year period begins to run when the victim attains the age of eighteen.

 

  • Maine

    • Definition: Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 17-A, § 852: Aggravated Sex Trafficking

    • 1. A person is guilty of aggravated sex trafficking if the person knowingly:

      • A. Promotes prostitution by compelling a person to enter into, engage in or remain in prostitution.

      • B. Promotes prostitution of a person less than 18 years old; or

      • C. Promotes prostitution of a person who suffers from a mental disability that is reasonably apparent or known to the actor and that in fact renders the other person substantially incapable of appraising the nature of the conduct involved.

    • 3. Aggravated sex trafficking is a Class B crime.

    • Statute of limitations: Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 17-A, § 8

      • 2. Except as provided in subsection 2-A, prosecutions for crimes other than murder or criminal homicide in the first or 2nd degree, or, if the victim had not attained the age of 16 years at the time of the crime, prosecutions for: incest; unlawful sexual contact; sexual abuse of a minor; rape or gross sexual assault, formerly denominated as gross sexual misconduct, are subject to the following periods of limitations:

        • A. A prosecution for a Class A, Class B or Class C crime must be commenced within 6 years after it is committed; and

        • B. A prosecution for a Class D or Class E crime must be commenced within 3 years after it is committed.

      • 2-A. A prosecution for a Class A, Class B or Class C crime involving unlawful sexual contact or gross sexual assault must be commenced within 8 years after it is committed.

 

  • Maryland

    • Definition: Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 11-303 (West): Human Trafficking

    • (a)(1) A person may not knowingly:

      • (i) take or cause another to be taken to any place for prostitution;

      • (ii) place, cause to be placed, or harbor another in any place for prostitution;

      • (iii) persuade, induce, entice, or encourage another to be taken to or placed in any place for prostitution;

      • (iv) receive consideration to procure for or place in a house of prostitution or elsewhere another with the intent of causing the other to engage in prostitution or assignation;

      • (v) engage in a device, scheme, or continuing course of conduct intended to cause another to believe that if the other did not take part in a sexually explicit performance, the other or a third person would suffer physical restraint or serious physical harm; or

      • (vi) destroy, conceal, remove, confiscate, or possess an actual or purported passport, immigration document, or government identification document of another while otherwise violating or attempting to violate this subsection. (2) A parent, guardian, or person who has permanent or temporary care or custody or responsibility for supervision of another may not consent to the taking or detention of the other for prostitution.

o  Minor status of victim: 

§ (b)(1) A person may not violate subsection (a) of this section involving a victim who is a minor. 

§ (2) A person may not knowingly take or detain another with the intent to use force, threat, coercion, or fraud to compel the other to marry the person or a third person or perform a sexual act, sexual contact, or vaginal intercourse.

    • (c)(2) A person who violates subsection (b) of this section is guilty of the felony of human trafficking

    • Statute of limitations: Md. Code Ann., Cts. & Jud. Proc. § 5-106 (West)

      • (b) Notwithstanding § 9-103(a)(3) of the Correctional Services Article or any other provision of the Code, if a statute provides that a misdemeanor is punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary or that a person is subject to this subsection:

        • (1) The State may institute a prosecution for the misdemeanor at any time

      • Note: In the absence of a specific statutory limitations period for a particular offense, the state may institute prosecution for a felony at any time.

 

  • Massachusetts

    • Definition: Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 265, § 50 (West): Human Trafficking – Sexual Servitude

    • (a) Whoever knowingly: (i) subjects, or attempts to subject, or recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides or obtains by any means, or attempts to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide or obtain by any means, another person to engage in commercial sexual activity, a sexually-explicit performance or the production of unlawful pornography in violation of chapter 272, or causes a person to engage in commercial sexual activity, a sexually-explicit performance or the production of unlawful pornography in violation of said chapter 272; or (ii) benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, as a result of a violation of clause (i), shall be guilty of the crime of trafficking of persons for sexual servitude and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not less than 5 years but not more than 20 years and by a fine of not more than $25,000. Such sentence shall not be reduced to less than 5 years, or suspended, nor shall any person convicted under this section be eligible for probation, parole, work release or furlough or receive any deduction from his sentence for good conduct until he shall have served 5 years of such sentence. No prosecution commenced under this section shall be continued without a finding or placed on file.

    • (b) Whoever commits the crime of trafficking of persons for sexual servitude upon a person under 18 years of age shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for life or for any term of years, but not less than 5 years. No person convicted under this subsection shall be eligible for probation, parole, work release or furlough or receive any deduction from his sentence for good conduct until he shall have served 5 years of such sentence.

    • Statute of limitations: Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 277, § 63 (West)

    • An indictment or complaint for an offense set forth in section 13B,13B ½,13B ¾,13F,13L,22A,22B,22C,23,23A,23B,24B or subsection (b)of section 50 of chapter 265, for conspiracy to commit any of these offenses, as an accessory thereto, or any 1 or more of them may be found and filed at any time after the date of the commission of such offense; but any indictment or complaint found and filed more than 27 years after the date of commission of such offense shall be supported by independent evidence that corroborates the victim's allegation.

    • Notwithstanding the first paragraph, if a victim of a crime set forth in section 13B, 13F, 13H, 22, 22A, 23, 24B, 26A or 50 of chapter 265, or section 1, 2, 3, 4, 4A, 4B, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, 26, 28, 29A, 29B, 33, 34, 35 or 35A of chapter 272 is under the age of 16 at the time the crime is committed, the period of limitation for prosecution shall not commence until the victim has reached the age of 16 or the violation is reported to a law enforcement agency, whichever occurs earlier.

 

  • Michigan

    • Definition: Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 750.462e (West): Forced Labor or Services - Minor

    • A person shall not do any of the following, regardless of whether the person knows the age of the minor:

      • (a) Recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means a minor for commercial sexual activity.

      • (b) Recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means a minor for forced labor or services.

    • Statute of limitations: Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 767.24 (West)

    • (1) An indictment for any of the following crimes may be found and filed at any time:

      • (c) A violation of chapter LXVIIA of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.462a to 750.462h, that is punishable by imprisonment for life.

    • (2) An indictment for a violation or attempted violation of section 13, 462b, 462c, 462d, or 462e of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.13, 750.462b, 750.462c, 750.462d, and 750.462e, may be found and filed within 25 years after the offense is committed. This subsection shall be known as “Theresa Flores’s Law”.

 

  • Minnesota

    • Definition: Minn. Stat. Ann. § 609.322 (West): Sex Trafficking

    • Subdivision 1. Solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution; sex trafficking in the first degree.

      • (a) Whoever, while acting other than as a prostitute or patron, intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $50,000, or both:

        • (1) solicits or induces an individual under the age of 18 years to practice prostitution;

        • (2) promotes the prostitution of an individual under the age of 18 years;

        • (3) receives profit, knowing or having reason to know that it is derived from the prostitution, or the promotion of the prostitution, of an individual under the age of 18 years; or

        • (4) engages in the sex trafficking of an individual under the age of 18 years.

    • Statute of limitations: Minn. Stat. Ann. § 628.26 (West)

      • (e) Indictments or complaints for violation of sections 609.322 and 609.342 to 609.345, if the victim was under the age of 18 years at the time the offense was committed, shall be found or made and filed in the proper court within the later of nine years after the commission of the offense or three years after the offense was reported to law enforcement authorities.

      • (f) Notwithstanding the limitations in paragraph (e), indictments or complaints for violation of sections 609.322 and 609.342 to 609.344 may be found or made and filed in the proper court at any time after commission of the offense, if physical evidence is collected and preserved that is capable of being tested for its DNA characteristics. If this evidence is not collected and preserved and the victim was 18 years old or older at the time of the offense, the prosecution must be commenced within nine years after the commission of the offense.

 

  • Mississippi

    • Definition: Miss. Code. Ann. § 97-3-54.1 (West): Human Trafficking

    • (1)(a) A person who coerces, recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides or obtains by any means, or attempts to coerce, recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide or obtain by any means, another person, intending or knowing that the person will be subjected to forced labor or services, or who benefits, whether financially or by receiving anything of value from participating in an enterprise that he knows or reasonably should have known has engaged in such acts, shall be guilty of the crime of human-trafficking.

    • Statute of limitations: Miss. Code. Ann. § 99-1-5 (West)

    • The passage of time shall never bar prosecution against any person for the offenses of murder, manslaughter, aggravated assault, aggravated domestic violence, kidnapping, arson, burglary, forgery, counterfeiting, robbery, larceny, rape, embezzlement, obtaining money or property under false pretenses or by fraud, felonious abuse or battery of a child as described in Section 97-5-39, touching or handling a child for lustful purposes as described in Section 97-5-23, sexual battery of a child as described in Section 97-3-95(1)(c), (d) or (2), exploitation of children as described in Section 97-5-33, promoting prostitution under Section 97-29-51(2) when the person involved is a minor, or for any human trafficking offense described in Section 97-3-54.1(1)(a), (1)(b) or (1)(c), Section 97-3-54.2, or Section 93-3-54.3

 

  • Missouri

    • Definition: Mo. Ann. Stat. § 566.209 (West): Trafficking for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation

    • 1. A person commits the crime of trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation if a person knowingly recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, advertises the availability of or obtains by any means, including but not limited to through the use of force, abduction, coercion, fraud, deception, blackmail, or causing or threatening to cause financial harm, another person for the use or employment of such person in a commercial sex act, sexual conduct, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010, without his or her consent, or benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in such activities.

    • 2. The offense of trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a felony.

    • Definition: Mo. Ann. Stat. §566.210: Trafficking of Child Under 12

    • 1. A person commits the offense of sexual trafficking of a child in the first degree if he or she knowingly:

      • (1) Recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, including but not limited to through the use of force, abduction, coercion, fraud, deception, blackmail, or causing or threatening to cause financial harm, a person under the age of twelve to participate in a commercial sex act, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010, or benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in such activities;

      • (2) Causes a person under the age of twelve to engage in a commercial sex act, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010; or

      • (3) Advertises the availability of a person under the age of twelve to participate in a commercial sex act, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010.

·     3. The offense of sexual trafficking of a child in the first degree is a felony. 

    • Definition: Mo. Ann. Stat. §566.211: Trafficking of Person Under 18

    • 1. A person commits the offense of sexual trafficking of a child in the second degree if he or she knowingly:

      • (1) Recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, including but not limited to through the use of force, abduction, coercion, fraud, deception, blackmail, or causing or threatening to cause financial harm, a person under the age of eighteen to participate in a commercial sex act, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010, or benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in such activities;

      • (2) Causes a person under the age of eighteen to engage in a commercial sex act, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010; or

      • (3) Advertises the availability of a person under the age of eighteen to participate in a commercial sex act, a sexual performance, or the production of explicit sexual material as defined in section 573.010.

·     3. The offense sexual trafficking of a child in the second degree is a felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Mo. Ann. Stat. § 556.036 (West)

    • 1. A prosecution for murder, rape in the first degree, forcible rape, attempted rape in the first degree, attempted forcible rape, sodomy in the first degree, forcible sodomy, attempted sodomy in the first degree, attempted forcible sodomy, or any class A felony may be commenced at any time.

    • 2. Except as otherwise provided in this section, prosecutions for other offenses must be commenced within the following periods of limitation:

      • (1) For any felony, three years, except as provided in subdivision (4) of this subsection.

 

  • Montana

    • Definition: Mont. Code Ann. § 45-5-702 (West): Trafficking of Persons

    • (1) A person commits the offense of trafficking of persons if the person purposely or knowingly:

      • (a) recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains, or entices another person intending or knowing that the person will be subjected to involuntary servitude or sexual servitude; or

      • (b) benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture that has subjected another person to involuntary servitude or sexual servitude.

    • Statute of Limitations: Mont. Code Ann. § 45-1-205 (West)

    • (2)(a) A prosecution for a felony must be commenced within 5 years after it is committed.

 

  • Nebraska

    • Definition: Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 28-831 (West): Human Trafficking

    • (1) Any person who engages in labor trafficking of a minor or sex trafficking of a minor is guilty of a Class IB felony.

    • (2) Any person who engages in labor trafficking or sex trafficking is guilty of a Class II felony.

    • (3) Any person, other than a trafficking victim, who knowingly benefits from or participates in a venture which has, as part of the venture, an act that is in violation of this section is guilty of a Class IIA felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 29-110 (West)

    • (10) There shall not be any time limitations for prosecution or punishment for treason, murder, arson, forgery, sexual assault in the first or second degree under section 28–319 or 28–320, sexual assault of a child in the second or third degree under section 28–320.01, incest under section 28–703, or sexual assault of a child in the first degree under section 28–319.01, labor trafficking of a minor or sex trafficking of a minor under subsection (1) of section 28–831, or an offense under section 28–1463.03; nor shall there be any time limitations for prosecution or punishment for sexual assault in the third degree under section 28–320 when the victim is under sixteen years of age at the time of the offense.

 

·     Nevada

    • Definition: Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 200.467 (West): Trafficking for Financial Gain

    • 1. A person shall not transport, procure transportation for or assist in the transportation of or procurement of transportation for another person into the State of Nevada who the person knows or has reason to know does not have the legal right to enter or remain in the United States in exchange for money or other financial gain.

    • 2. A person who violates the provisions of subsection 1 is guilty of trafficking in persons and, unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to NRS 200.464 or 200.468, shall be punished for a category B felony.

    • Definition: Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §200.468 (West): Trafficking in Persons for Illegal Purposes

    • 1. A person shall not transport, procure transportation for or assist in the transportation of or procurement of transportation for another person into the State of Nevada whom the person knows or has reason to know does not have the legal right to enter or remain in the United States with the intent to:

      • (a) Subject the person to involuntary servitude or any other act prohibited pursuant to NRS 200.463, 200.4631 or 200.465;

      • (b) Violate any state or federal labor law, including, without limitation, 8 U.S.C. § 1324a; or

      • (c) Commit any other crime which is punishable by not less than 1 year imprisonment in the state prison.

    • 2. A person who violates the provisions of subsection 1 is guilty of trafficking in persons for illegal purposes and shall be punished for a category B felony.

    • Definition: Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §200.4685 (West): Trafficking in Children

    • 1. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person shall not:

      • (a) Recruit, transport, transfer, harbor, provide, obtain, maintain or solicit a child in furtherance of a transaction, or advertise or facilitate a transaction, pursuant to which a parent of the child or a person with custody of the child places the child in the physical custody of another person who is not a relative of the child, for the purpose of permanently avoiding or divesting himself or herself of responsibility for the child.

      • (b) Sell, transfer or arrange for the sale or transfer of a child to another person for money or anything of value or receive a child in exchange for money or anything of value.

    • 3. A person who violates the provisions of subsection 1 is guilty of trafficking in children and shall be punished for a category C felony.

    • Statute of Limitations: Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 171.085 (West)

    • 1. Theft, robbery, burglary, forgery, arson, sex trafficking, a violation of NRS 90.570, a violation punishable pursuant to paragraph (c) of subsection 3 of NRS 598.0999 or a violation of NRS 205.377 must be found, or an information or complaint filed, within 4 years after the commission of the offense.

    • Statute of Limitations: Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §171.083 (West)

    • 1. If, at any time during the period of limitation prescribed in NRS 171.085 and 171.095, a victim of a sexual assault, a person authorized to act on behalf of a victim of a sexual assault, or a victim of sex trafficking or a person authorized to act on behalf of a victim of sex trafficking, files with a law enforcement officer a written report concerning the sexual assault or sex trafficking, the period of limitation prescribed in NRS 171.085 and 171.095 is removed and there is no limitation of the time within which a prosecution for the sexual assault or sex trafficking must be commenced.

 

  • New Hampshire

    • Definition: N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 633:7: Trafficking in Persons

    • I. (a) It is a class A felony to knowingly compel a person against his or her will to perform a service or labor, including a commercial sex act or a sexually-explicit performance, for the benefit of another, where the compulsion is accomplished by any of the following means…

    • II. A person shall be guilty of a class A felony if such person maintains or makes available an individual under 18 years of age for the purpose of engaging the individual in a commercial sex act or sexually-explicit performance for the benefit of another.

    • Statute of limitations: N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 625:8

    • I. Except as otherwise provided in this section, prosecutions are subject to the following periods of limitations:

      • (a) For a class A felony, 6 years;

    • III. (i) For any offense under RSA 633:7, within 20 years, except where the victim was under 18 years of age when the alleged offense occurred, in which case within 20 years of the victim's eighteenth birthday.

 

  • New Jersey

    • Definition: N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:13-8 (West): Human Trafficking

    • a. A person commits the crime of human trafficking if he:

      • (1) knowingly holds, recruits, lures, entices, harbors, transports, provides or obtains, by any means, another, to engage in sexual activity as defined in paragraph (2) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:34-1 or to provide labor or services…

    • b. An offense under this section constitutes a crime of the first degree.

    • Statute of Limitations: N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:1-6 (West)

    • b. Except as otherwise provided in this section, prosecutions for other offenses are subject to the following periods of limitations:

      • (1) A prosecution for a crime must be commenced within five years after it is committed;

o  (4) A prosecution for an offense set forth in N.J.S.2C:14-3 or N.J.S.2C:24-4, when the victim at the time of the offense is below the age of 18 years, must be commenced within five years of the victim's attaining the age of 18 or within two years of the discovery of the offense by the victim, whichever is later… 

 

  • New Mexico

    • Definition: N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-52-1 (West): Human Trafficking

    • A. Human trafficking consists of a person knowingly:

      • (1) recruiting, soliciting, enticing, transporting or obtaining by any means another person with the intent or knowledge that force, fraud or coercion will be used to subject the person to labor, services or commercial sexual activity;

      • (2) recruiting, soliciting, enticing, transporting or obtaining by any means a person under the age of eighteen years with the intent or knowledge that the person will be caused to engage in commercial sexual activity; or

      • (3) benefiting, financially or by receiving anything of value, from the labor, services or commercial sexual activity of another person with the knowledge that force, fraud or coercion was used to obtain the labor, services or commercial sexual activity.

·     C. Whoever commits human trafficking is guilty of a third degree felony; except if the victim is under the age of: 

o  (1) sixteen, the person is guilty of a second degree felony; or 

o  (2) thirteen, the person is guilty of a first degree felony.

    • Statute of limitations: N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-1-8 (West)

    • A person shall not be prosecuted, tried or punished in any court of this state unless the indictment is found or information or complaint is filed within the time as provided:

      • A. for a second degree felony, within six years from the time the crime was committed;

      • B. for a third or fourth degree felony, within five years from the time the crime was committed;

      • I. for a capital felony or a first degree violent felony, no limitation period shall exist and prosecution for these crimes may commence at any time after the occurrence of the crime.

 

  • New York

    • Definition: N.Y. Penal Law § 230.34 (McKinney): Sex Trafficking

    • A person is guilty of sex trafficking if he or she intentionally advances or profits from prostitution by:

      • 1. unlawfully providing to a person who is patronized, with intent to impair said person's judgment: (a) a narcotic drug or a narcotic preparation; (b) concentrated cannabis as defined in paragraph (a) of subdivision four of section thirty-three hundred two of the public health law; (c) methadone; or (d) gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) or flunitrazepan, also known as Rohypnol;

      • 2. making material false statements, misstatements, or omissions to induce or maintain the person being patronized to engage in or continue to engage in prostitution activity;

      • 3. withholding, destroying, or confiscating any actual or purported passport, immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document of another person with intent to impair said person's freedom of movement; provided, however, that this subdivision shall not apply to an attempt to correct a social security administration record or immigration agency record in accordance with any local, state, or federal agency requirement, where such attempt is not made for the purpose of any express or implied threat;

      • 4. requiring that prostitution be performed to retire, repay, or service a real or purported debt;

      • 5. using force or engaging in any scheme, plan or pattern to compel or induce the person being patronized to engage in or continue to engage in prostitution activity by means of instilling a fear in the person being patronized that, if the demand is not complied with, the actor or another will do one or more of the following…

    • Sex trafficking is a class B felony.

    • Definition: N.Y. Crim. Proc. Laws §230.34-A: Sex Trafficking of a Child

    • 1. A person is guilty of sex trafficking of a child when he or she, being twenty-one years old or more, intentionally advances or profits from prostitution of another person and such person is a child less than eighteen years old.

    • Sex trafficking of a child is a class B felony.

    • Statute of limitations: N.Y. Crim. Proc. Law § 30.10 (McKinney)

    • b) A prosecution for any other felony must be commenced within five years after the commission thereof;

 

  • North Carolina

    • Definition: N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 14-43.11: Human Trafficking

    • (a) A person commits the offense of human trafficking when that person (i) knowingly or in reckless disregard of the consequences of the action recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means another person with the intent that the other person be held in involuntary servitude or sexual servitude or (ii) willfully or in reckless disregard of the consequences of the action causes a minor to be held in involuntary servitude or sexual servitude.

    • (b) A person who violates this section is guilty of a Class C felony if the victim of the offense is an adult. A person who violates this section is guilty of a Class B2 felony if the victim of the offense is a minor.

    • Statute of limitations: N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15-10

    • In North Carolina, there is no statute of limitations barring prosecution of a felony. State v. Hardin, 1973, 201 S.E.2d 74, 20 N.C.App.

 

  • North Dakota

    • Definition: N.D. Cent. Code Ann. § 12.1-41-02 (West): Trafficking an Individual

    • 1. A person commits the offense of trafficking an individual if the person knowingly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains, or entices an individual in furtherance of:

      • a. Forced labor in violation of section 12.1-41-03; or

      • b. Sexual servitude in violation of section 12.1-41-04.

    • 2. Trafficking an individual who is an adult is a class A felony.

    • 3. Trafficking an individual who is a minor is a class AA felony

    • Statute of limitations: N.D. Cent. Code Ann. § 29-04-02.1 (West)

    • Except as otherwise provided by law, a prosecution for a violation of subdivision a of subsection 1 of section 12.1-20-03 or for the crime of human trafficking must be commenced in the proper court within seven years after the commission of the offense.

 

  • Ohio

    • Definition: Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2905.32 (West): Trafficking in Persons

    • (A) No person shall knowingly recruit, lure, entice, isolate, harbor, transport, provide, obtain, or maintain, or knowingly attempt to recruit, lure, entice, isolate, harbor, transport, provide, obtain, or maintain, another person if any of the following applies:

      • (1) The offender knows that the other person will be subjected to involuntary servitude or be compelled to engage in sexual activity for hire, engage in a performance that is obscene, sexually oriented, or nudity oriented, or be a model or participant in the production of material that is obscene, sexually oriented, or nudity oriented.

      • (2) The other person is less than sixteen years of age or is a person with a developmental disability whom the offender knows or has reasonable cause to believe is a person with a developmental disability, and either the offender knows that the other person will be subjected to involuntary servitude or the offender's knowing recruitment, luring, enticement, isolation, harboring, transportation, provision, obtaining, or maintenance of the other person or knowing attempt to recruit, lure, entice, isolate, harbor, transport, provide, obtain, or maintain the other person is for any of the following purposes:

        1. (a) To engage in sexual activity for hire;

        2. (b) To engage in a performance for hire that is obscene, sexually oriented, or nudity oriented;

        3. (c) To be a model or participant for hire in the production of material that is obscene, sexually oriented, or nudity oriented.

      • (E) Whoever violates this section is guilty of trafficking in persons, a felony of the first degree.

    • Statute of limitations: Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2901.13 (West)

    • (3) Except as otherwise provided in divisions (B) to (J) of this section, a prosecution of any of the following offenses shall be barred unless it is commenced within twenty years after the offense is committed:

      • (a) A violation of section 2903.03, 2903.04, 2905.01, 2905.32, 2907.04, 2907.05, 2907.21, 2909.02, 2909.22, 2909.23, 2909.24, 2909.26, 2909.27, 2909.28, 2909.29, 2911.01, 2911.02, 2911.11, 2911.12, or 2917.02 of the Revised Code, a violation of section 2903.11 or 2903.12 of the Revised Code if the victim is a peace officer, a violation of section 2903.13 of the Revised Code that is a felony, or a violation of former section 2907.12 of the Revised Code…

 

  • Oklahoma

    • Definition: Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, § 748 (West): Human Trafficking for Forced Labor or for Sexual Exploitation

    • 6. “Human trafficking for commercial sex” means:

      • a. recruiting, enticing, harboring, maintaining, transporting, providing or obtaining, by any means, another person through deception, force, fraud, threat or coercion for purposes of engaging the person in a commercial sex act,

      • b. recruiting, enticing, harboring, maintaining, transporting, providing, purchasing or obtaining, by any means, a minor for purposes of engaging the minor in a commercial sex act, or

      • c. benefiting, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participating in a venture that has engaged in an act of trafficking for commercial sex;…

    • C. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a felony.

    • Definition: Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, §866 (West): Trafficking in Children

    • A. 1. The crime of trafficking in children is defined to consist of any of the following acts or any part thereof:

      • a. the acceptance, solicitation, offer, payment or transfer of any compensation, in money, property or other thing of value, at any time, by any person in connection with the acquisition or transfer of the legal or physical custody or adoption of a minor child, except as ordered by the court or except as otherwise provided by Section 7505-3.2 of Title 10 of the Oklahoma Statutes…

    • 2. a. Except as otherwise provided by this section, the violation of any of the subparagraphs in paragraph 1 of this subsection shall constitute a felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 22, § 152 (West)

    • C. 1. Prosecutions for sexual crimes against children, specifically rape or forcible sodomy, sodomy, lewd or indecent proposals or acts against children, involving minors in pornography pursuant to Section 886, 888, 1111, 1111.1, 1113, 1114, 1021.2, 1021.3, 1040.12a or 1123 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes, child abuse pursuant to Section 843.5 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes, and child trafficking pursuant to Section 866 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes shall be commenced by the forty-fifth birthday of the alleged victim. Prosecutions for such crimes committed against victims eighteen (18) years of age or older shall be commenced within twelve (12) years after the discovery of the crime.

 

  • Oregon

    • Definition: Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 163.266 (West): Trafficking in Persons

    • (1) A person commits the crime of trafficking in persons if the person knowingly recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides or obtains by any means, or attempts to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide or obtain by any means, another person and:

      • (a) The person knows that the other person will be subjected to involuntary servitude as described in ORS 163.263 or 163.264;

      • (b) The person knows or recklessly disregards the fact that force, fraud or coercion will be used to cause the other person to engage in a commercial sex act; or

      • (c) The person knows or recklessly disregards the fact that the other person is under 18 years of age and will be used in a commercial sex act.

    • (4) Violation of subsection (1)(a) or (2) of this section is a Class B felony.

    • (5) Violation of subsection (1)(b) or (c) of this section is a Class A felony.

    • Statute of limitations: Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 131.125 (West)

    • (2) A prosecution for any of the following felonies may be commenced within 12 years after the commission of the crime or, if the victim at the time of the crime was under 18 years of age, anytime before the victim attains 30 years of age à

    • (8) Except as provided in subsection (9) of this section or as otherwise expressly provided by law, prosecutions for other offenses must be commenced within the following periods of limitations after their commission: (a) For any other felony, three years.

 

  • Pennsylvania

    • Definition: 18 Pa. Stat. and Cons. Stat. Ann. § 3011 (West): Trafficking in Individuals

    • (a) Offense defined.--A person commits a felony of the second degree if the person:

      • (1) recruits, entices, solicits, harbors, transports, provides, obtains or maintains an individual if the person knows or recklessly disregards that the individual will be subject to involuntary servitude; or

      • (2) knowingly benefits financially or receives anything of value from any act that facilitates any activity described in paragraph (1).

    • (b) Trafficking in minors.--A person commits a felony of the first degree if the person engages in any activity listed in subsection (a) that results in a minor's being subjected to sexual servitude.

    • Statute of limitations: 42 Pa. Stat. and Cons. Stat. Ann. § 5552 (West)

    • (c) Exceptions.--If the period prescribed in subsection (a), (b) or (b.1) has expired, a prosecution may nevertheless be commenced for:

      • (3) Any sexual offense committed against a minor who is less than 18 years of age any time up to the later of the period of limitation provided by law after the minor has reached 18 years of age or the date the minor reaches 50 years of age. As used in this paragraph, the term "sexual offense" means a crime under the following provisions of Title 18 (relating to crimes and offenses):

        • Section 3011(b) (relating to trafficking in individuals).

 

  • Rhode Island

    • Definition: 11 R.I. Gen. Laws Ann. § 11-67.1-3 (West): Trafficking an Individual

    • (a) A person commits the offense of trafficking an individual if the person knowingly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains, or entices an individual in furtherance of:

      • (1) Forced labor in violation of § 11-67.1-4; or

      • (2) Sexual servitude in violation of § 11-67.1-5.

    • Statute of limitations: 11 R.I. Gen. Laws Ann. § 11-67.1-12 (West)

    • A prosecution for an offense under this chapter must be commenced not later than ten (10) years after commission of the offense.

 

  • South Carolina

    • Definition: S.C. Code Ann. § 16-3-2020: Trafficking in Persons; Minor Victims

    • (A) A person is guilty of trafficking in persons if he:

      • (1) recruits, entices, solicits, isolates, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains, or so attempts, a victim, knowing that the victim will be subjected to, or for the purposes of, sex trafficking, forced labor or services, involuntary servitude or debt bondage through any means or who benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture which has engaged in an act described in this subsection, is guilty of trafficking in persons;

      • (2) aids, abets, or conspires with another person to violate the criminal provisions of this section; or

      • (3) knowingly gives, agrees to give, or offers to give anything of value so that any person may engage in commercial sexual activity with another person when he knows that the other person is a victim of trafficking in persons.

    • (B) A person convicted of a violation of subsection (A) is guilty of a felony.

    • (C) If the victim of an offense contained in this section is under the age of eighteen, the person convicted under this section is guilty of a felony

    • Statute of limitations:

    • No statute of limitations for any criminal prosecution in SC.

 

  • South Dakota

    • Definition: S.D. Codified Laws § 22-49-1: Human Trafficking

    • No person may recruit, harbor, transport, provide, receive, or obtain, by any means, another person knowing that force, fraud, or coercion will be used to cause the person to engage in prostitution, forced labor, or involuntary servitude. No person may benefit financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has engaged in acts set forth in this section. Any violation of this section constitutes the crime of human trafficking. If the victim is under eighteen years of age, the crime of human trafficking need not involve force, fraud, or coercion.

    • Definition: S.D. Codified Laws §22-49-2: First Degree Human Trafficking

    • If a person is guilty of human trafficking under Section 22-49-1, and the act:

      • (1) Involves committing or attempting to commit kidnapping; (2) Involves a victim under the age of eighteen years;

      • (3) Involves prostitution or procurement for prostitution; or

      • (4) Results in the death of a victim; the person has committed human trafficking in the first degree.

      • A violation of the provisions of this section is a Class 2 felony.

    • Statute of limitations: S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-42-2

    • In all other prosecutions for a public offense and all proceedings of a quasi-criminal or penal nature, including the forfeiture of existing rights, the proceedings shall be commenced within seven years after the commission of the offense or crime which is the basis of the prosecution or proceedings

 

  • Tennessee

    • Definition: Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-13-308 (West): Trafficking Persons for Forced Labor or Services

    • (a) A person commits the offense of trafficking persons for forced labor or services who knowingly:

      • (1) Recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, or attempts to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means, another person, intending or knowing that the person will be subjected to involuntary servitude; or

      • (2) Benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture that has engaged in an act described in § 39-13-307.

    • (c) Trafficking for forced labor or services is a Class C felony.

    • Definition: Tenn. Code Ann. §39-13-309: Trafficking for Commercial Sex Act

    • (a) A person commits the offense of trafficking a person for a commercial sex act who:

      • (1) Knowingly subjects, attempts to subject, benefits from or attempts to benefit from another person's provision of a commercial sex act; or

      • (2) Recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, purchases, or obtains by any other means, another person for the purpose of providing a commercial sex act..

    • (c) A violation of subsection (a) is a Class B felony, except where the victim of the offense is a child under fifteen (15) years of age, or where the offense occurs on the grounds or facilities or within one thousand feet (1,000') of a public or private school, secondary school, preschool, child care agency, public library, recreational center, or public park, a violation of subsection (a) is a Class A felony

    • Statute of limitations: Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-2-101 (West)

    • (b) Prosecution for a felony offense shall begin within:

      • (1) Fifteen (15) years for a Class A felony;

      • (2) Eight (8) years for a Class B felony;

      • (3) Four (4) years for a Class C or Class D felony…

    • (k) (1) A person may be prosecuted, tried and punished for any offense committed against a child on or after July 1, 2013, that constitutes a criminal offense under § 39-13-309 or § 39-13-529, no later than fifteen (15) years from the date the child becomes eighteen (18) years of age.

 

  • Texas

    • Definition:V.T.C.A., Penal Code § 20A.02: Trafficking of Persons

    • (a) A person commits an offense if the person knowingly:

      • (1) traffics another person with the intent that the traffickedperson engage in forced labor or services;

      • (2) receives a benefit from participating in a venture that involves an activity described by Subdivision (1), including by receiving labor or services the person knows are forced labor or services;

      • (3) traffics another person and, through force, fraud, or coercion, causes the traffickedperson to engage in conduct prohibited by…

      • (4) receives a benefit from participating in a venture that involves an activity described by Subdivision (3) or engages in sexual conduct with a person traffickedin the manner described in Subdivision (3);

      • (5) traffics a child with the intent that the traffickedchild engage in forced labor or services;

      • (6) receives a benefit from participating in a venture that involves an activity described by Subdivision (5), including by receiving labor or services the person knows are forced labor or services;

      • (7) traffics a child and by any means causes the traffickedchild to engage in, or become the victim of, conduct prohibited by…

    • (b) [2 Versions: As amended by Acts 2017, 85th Leg., chs. 685 and 1038] Except as otherwise provided by this subsection, an offense under this section is a felony of the second degree. An offense under this section is a felony of the first degree if: (1) the applicable conduct constitutes an offense under Subsection (a)(5), (6), (7), or (8), regardless of whether the actor knows the age of the child at the time of the offense; or (2) the commission of the offense results in the death of the person who is trafficked.

    • Statute of limitations: Tex. Crim. Proc. Code Ann. § 12.01 (West)

    • Except as provided in Article 12.03, felony indictments may be presented within these limits, and not afterward:

    • (1) no limitation:

      • (G) trafficking of persons under Section 20A.02(a)(7) or (8), Penal Code…

    • (2) ten years from the date of the commission of the offense:

      • (G) trafficking of persons under Section 20A.02(a)(1), (2), (3), or (4), Penal Code…

    • (6) ten years from the 18th birthday of the victim of the offense:

      • (A) trafficking of persons under Section 20A.02(a)(5) or (6), Penal Code

·     Utah 

  • Definition: Utah Code Ann. § 76-5-308 (West): Human Trafficking

  • (1) An actor commits human trafficking for forced labor or forced sexual exploitation if the actor recruits, harbors, transports, obtains, patronizes, or solicits a person through the use of force, fraud, or coercion, which may include:

    • (a) threatening serious harm to, or physical restraint against, that person or a third person;

    • (b) destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any passport, immigration document, or other government-issued identification document;

    • (c) abusing or threatening abuse of the law or legal process against the person or a third person;

    • (d) using a condition of a person being a debtor due to a pledge of the debtor's personal services or the personal services of a person under the control of the debtor as a security for debt where the reasonable value of the services is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined;

    • (e) using a condition of servitude by means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that if the person did not enter into or continue in a condition of servitude, that person or a third person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint, or would be threatened with abuse of legal process; or

    • (f) creating or exploiting a relationship where the person is dependent on the actor.

  • Definition: Utah Code Ann. § 76-5-308.5: Human Trafficking of a Child:

  • (2) An actor commits human trafficking of a child if the actor recruits, harbors, transports, obtains, patronizes, or solicits a child for sexual exploitation or forced labor.

  • (4) Human trafficking of a child in violation of this section is a first degree felony.

  • Definition: Utah Code Ann. §76-5-310: Aggravated Human Trafficking/Smuggling:

  • (2) An actor commits aggravated human smuggling if the actor commits human smuggling under Section 76-5-308 and any human being whom the person engages in smuggling is:

    • (a) a child; and

    • (b) not accompanied by a family member who is 18 years of age or older.

  • Statute of limitation: Utah Code Ann. § 76-1-301 (West)

  • (2) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this code, prosecution for the following offenses may be commenced at any time:

    • (r) aggravated human trafficking or aggravated human smuggling in violation of Section 76-5-310

    • (t) human trafficking of a child, under Section 76–5–308.5.

·     Vermont

  • Definition: Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 2652 (West): Human Trafficking

  • (a) No person shall knowingly:

    • (1) recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means a person under the age of 18 for the purpose of having the person engage in a commercial sex act;

    • (2) recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain a person through force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of having the person engage in a commercial sex act;

    • (3) compel a person through force, fraud, or coercion to engage in a commercial sex act;

    • (4) benefit financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture, knowing that force, fraud, or coercion was or will be used to compel any person to engage in a commercial sex act as part of the venture;

    • (5) subject a person to labor servitude;

    • (6) recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain a person for the purpose of subjecting the person to labor servitude; or

    • (7) benefit financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture, knowing that a person will be subject to labor servitude as part of the venture.

  • Definition: Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 2653: Aggravated Human Trafficking

  • (a) A person commits the crime of aggravated human trafficking if the person commits human trafficking in violation of section 2652 of this title under any of the following circumstances:

    • (1) the offense involves a victim of human trafficking who is a child under the age of 18…

  • Statute of limitation: Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4501 (West)

  • (a) Prosecutions for aggravated sexual assault, aggravated sexual assault of a child, sexual assault, human trafficking, aggravated human trafficking, murder, arson causing death, and kidnapping may be commenced at any time after the commission of the offense.

·     Virginia

  • Definition: Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-355 (West): Human Trafficking

  • Any person who:

    • (1) For purposes of prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse, takes any person into, or persuades, encourages or causes any person to enter, a bawdy place, or takes or causes such person to be taken to any place against his or her will for such purposes; or

    • (2) Takes or detains a person against his or her will with the intent to compel such person, by force, threats, persuasions, menace or duress, to marry him or her or to marry any other person, or to be defiled; or

    • (3) Being parent, guardian, legal custodian or one standing in loco parentis of a person, consents to such person being taken or detained by any person for the purpose of prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse; or
      (4) For purposes of prostitution, takes any minor into, or persuades, encourages, or causes any minor to enter, a bawdy place, or takes or causes such person to be taken to any place for such purposes; is guilty of pandering.

  • A violation of subdivision (1), (2), or (3) is punishable as a Class 4 felony. A violation of subdivision (4) is punishable as a Class 3 felony.

  • Definition: Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-357.1: Commercial Sex Trafficking

  • A. Any person who, with the intent to receive money or other valuable thing or to assist another in receiving money or other valuable thing from the earnings of a person from prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse in violation of subsection A of § 18.2-346, solicits, invites, recruits, encourages, or otherwise causes or attempts to cause a person to violate subsection A of § 18.2-346 is guilty of a Class 5 felony. C. Any adult who violates subsection A with a person under the age of 18 is guilty of a Class 3 felony.

  • Statute of limitations:

    • no statute of limitations for felonies.

·     Washington

  • Definition: Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9A.40.100 (West): Trafficking

  • (1) A person is guilty of trafficking in the first degree when:(a) Such person:

    • (i) Recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, provides, obtains, buys, purchases, or receives by any means another person knowing, or in reckless disregard of the fact, (A) that force, fraud, or coercion as defined in RCW 9A.36.070 will be used to cause the person to engage in:

      • (I) Forced labor;

      • (II) Involuntary servitude;

      • (III) A sexually explicit act; or

      • (IV) A commercial sex act, or (B) that the person has not attained the age of eighteen years and is caused to engage in a sexually explicit act or a commercial sex act; or

    • (ii) Benefits financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has engaged in acts set forth in (a)(i) of this subsection; and

      • (b) The acts or venture set forth in (a) of this subsection:

        • (i) Involve committing or attempting to commit kidnapping;

        • (ii) Involve a finding of sexual motivation under RCW 9.94A.835;

        • (iii) Involve the illegal harvesting or sale of human organs; or

        • (iv) Result in a death.

  • (2) Trafficking in the first degree is a class A felony.

  • (3) (a) A person is guilty of trafficking in the second degree when such person:

    • (i) Recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, provides, obtains, buys, purchases, or receives by any means another person knowing, or in reckless disregard of the fact, that force, fraud, or coercion as defined in RCW 9A.36.070 will be used to cause the person to engage in forced labor, involuntary servitude, a sexually explicit act, or a commercial sex act, or that the person has not attained the age of eighteen years and is caused to engage in a sexually explicit act or a commercial sex act; or

    • (ii) Benefits financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has engaged in acts set forth in (a)(i) of this subsection.

    • (b) Trafficking in the second degree is a class A felony.

  • Criminal Statute of limitations: Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9A.04.080 (West)

  • (b) Except as provided in (c) of this subsection, the following offenses shall not be prosecuted more than ten years after their commission:

    • (vi) Trafficking under RCW 9A.40.100.

  • Civil Statute of limitations: Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 4.16.340 (West)

  • (1) All claims or causes of action based on intentional conduct brought by any person for recovery of damages for injury suffered as a result of childhood sexual abuse shall be commenced within the later of the following periods: (a) Within three years of the act alleged to have caused the injury or condition; (b) Within three years of the time the victim discovered or reasonably should have discovered that the injury or condition was caused by said act; or (c) Within three years of the time the victim discovered that the act caused the injury for which the claim is brought: PROVIDED, That the time limit for commencement of an action under this section is tolled for a child until the child reaches the age of eighteen years.

·     West Virginia

  • Definition: W. Va. Code Ann. § 61-14-2 (West): Human Trafficking of an Individual

  • (a) Any person who knowingly and willfully traffics an adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years, fined not more than $200,000, or both imprisoned and fined.

  • (b) Any person who knowingly and willfully traffics a minor is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than five nor more than twenty years, fined not more than $300,000, or both imprisoned and fined.

  • Statute of limitations:

    • no time limit for felonies.

·          Wisconsin

  • Definition: Wis. Stat. Ann. § 940.302 (West): Human Trafficking

  • (1) (d) “Trafficking” means recruiting, enticing, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining, or attempting to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain, an individual.

  • (2)(a) Except as provided in s. 948.051, whoever knowingly engages in trafficking is guilty of a Class D felony if all of the following apply:

    • 1. One of the following applies:

      • a. The trafficking is for the purposes of labor or services.

      • b. The trafficking is for the purposes of a commercial sex act.

    • 2. The trafficking is done by any of the following:

      • a. Causing or threatening to cause bodily harm to any individual.

      • b. Causing or threatening to cause financial harm to any individual.

      • c. Restraining or threatening to restrain any individual.

      • d. Violating or threatening to violate a law.

      • e. Destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing, or threatening to destroy, conceal, remove, confiscate, or possess, any actual or purported passport or any other actual or purported official identification document of any individual.

      • f. Extortion.

      • g. Fraud or deception.

      • h. Debt bondage.

      • i. Controlling or threatening to control any individual's access to an addictive controlled substance.

      • j. Using any scheme, pattern, or other means to directly or indirectly coerce, threaten, or intimidate any individual.

      • k. Using or threatening to use force or violence on any individual.

      • L. Causing or threatening to cause any individual to do any act against the individual's will or without the individual's consent.

    • (b) Whoever benefits in any manner from a violation of par. (a) is guilty of a Class D felony if the person knows or reasonably should have known that the benefits come from or are derived from an act or scheme described in par. (a).

§ (c) Whoever knowingly receives compensation from the earnings of debt bondage, a prostitute, or a commercial sex act, as described in sub. (1)(a)1. and 2., is guilty of a Class F felony.

  • Statute of limitations: Wis. Stat. Ann. § 939.74 (West)

  • (1) Except as provided in subs. (2) and (2d) and s. 946.88 (1), prosecution for a felony must be commenced within 6 years…

  • (c) A prosecution for violation of s. 948.02(2), 948.025(1)(e), 948.03(2)(a) or (5)(a)1., 2., or 3., 948.05, 948.051, 948.06, 948.07(1), (2), (3), or (4), 948.075, 948.08, 948.081, 948.085, or 948.095 shall be commenced before the victim reaches the age of 45 years or be barred, except as provided in sub. (2d).

 

·     Wyoming

  • Definition: Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-2-702 (West): Human Trafficking in First Degree

  • (a) A person is guilty of human trafficking in the first degree when the person intentionally or knowingly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains or entices an individual for the purpose of:

    • (i) Forced labor or servitude in violation of W.S. 6-2-704;

    • (ii) Sexual servitude in violation of W.S. 6-2-705; or

    • (iii) Sexual servitude of a minor in violation of W.S. 6-2-706.

  • (b) Human trafficking in the first degree is a felony.

  • Definition: Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-2-703 (West): Human Trafficking in Second Degree

  • (a) A person is guilty of human trafficking in the second degree when the person recklessly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains or entices an individual for the purpose of:

    • (i) Forced labor or servitude in violation of W.S. 6-2-704;

    • (ii) Sexual servitude in violation of W.S. 6-2-705;

    • (iii) Sexual servitude of a minor in violation of W.S. 6-2-706.

  • (b) Human trafficking in the second degree is a felony.

  • Statute of limitations:

    • no statute of limitations for any criminal prosecution.